It is surprisingly easy to generate a fractal image. A schematic of the Mandelbrot Set is as follows. Start with the equation $z_{n+1} = z_n^2 + c$, where $c$ is a complex number. Your “image” is a 2d array whose rows and columns correspond to the real and imaginary parts of $c$. Set $z_0 = 0$ and repeatedly apply the equation. If the value converges in a set number of iterations, set the corresponding entry in your array to 1, else 0.


Array/figure size in pixels


Bitmapped image, running time


Color the pixel by the number of iterations it took to converge. Try variants of the equation (see Julia sets). And note that the computation of each pixel is independent of every other: we can parallelize this! We visit this in another post. There are many ways to optimize the sequential implementation — try these out!


Show us what you learnt!

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Array size, data type, search algorithm, key. The key can specified as an index or as a non-existent value


index, if key is in the array, -1 otherwise. Running time


  1. Generate the array of the given data type and size. Populate with random numbers in sorted order (duh!)
  2. Implement the usual suspects:
    1. Linear search
    2. Binary search
    3. Exponential search
  3. Implement different optimizations for each of these
  4. Test that the search is correct


your implementation. There can be many variations in here, based on where the key is. Compare the performance of different searches for keys at the beginning, middle and end of the array. What do you think is the best-, average- and worst-case situation for each search? Do the performance results match your intuition? There are different ways of analyzing the performance, such as time v. array size for different key locations, or time v. key location for different array sizes, or …. What do you choose?


your findings! Can you correlate these to the theoretical analysis and the architecture of your platform?

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This is so fundamental that you’re probably wondering why I even bother to put it here. Read on…


Array size, data type, algorithm, sort order


Running time of different parts of the code


  1. Create an array of the given data type and size, and populate it with random values
  2. Implement multiple sorting routines:
    1. InsertionSort
    2. MergeSort
    3. QuickSort
    4. ShellSort
    5. CountingSort
  3. Implement different optimizations for these
  4. Test that the final array is sorted


your implementation with different array sizes. Your program should report the time to generate the array, sort it and test that it has been sorted correctly.

Write a wrapper script that captures the above running times and generates a plot that shows the comparative performance of different sorting routines: the x-axis is the array size and the y-axis is the time. You should have multiple versions of the above sorts with different implementations.

What do you expect the graph to look like? Can you explain the shape of what you actually get? 

Should you combine different sorting approaches? What would you expect, and how would you do this?

What factors impact the performance that you observe?


Compile your experiments and describe your findings. What conclusions do you draw from this? What do you hypothesize, and how did you test your hypotheses?


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Command-Line and Options

Your programs should be parameterized and should take inputs at the command line (not prompt the user for inputs!)

The command line can be used to control the behavior of the program:

  • Specify the sort order
  • Specify the algorithm
  • Provide debug/progress information
  • Specify output formats and destination

To specify inputs:

  • From a file v. generate internally
  • Provide the search key if searching

This helps when you want to benchmark or generate performance data – easy to put into a script and push the button.

Figure out once how to process command-line options, and you can just use this for all your programs. Most languages have existing libraries or packages that do pretty sophisticated parsing and fancy stuff like how you specify flags and options. Experiment with these!

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Focus on Performance

Colleges don’t talk about program performance; I find this strange since they focus so much on student performance!

Develop the habit of instrumenting your code by default — figure out the correct timer to use for your platform, and measure, measure, measure. Understand the interplay between the code you write, what the compiler does to it, and how it runs on the CPU. 

Investigate the tools available on your platform, and experiment with these. You will learn a lot from this than you can ever imagine!

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Debug & Test

Learn how to debug your code. This is not just about the tools (research and get familiar with the appropriate tools for your language and platform) but also about writing code that is easy to debug and your mental model for how you approach debugging. 

Think about how you can test the code that you’ve written — both at the micro-level and for the entire application. Get into the habit of writing your own test cases, or rather, generating your test cases. Can you be comprehensive? (why not?) What are the corner cases? Each time you make a change / add a feature / fix a bug, ensure that your code passes all the tests you have defined. 

Learn how to talk about your implementation: the choices you made for the data structures and algorithms and why you chose this instead of that. And remember:

Debugging is twice as hard as writing the code in the first place. Therefore, if you write the code as cleverly as possible, you are, by definition, not smart enough to debug it.

Brian Kernighan

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Version Control

git is the flavor of the day; so learn how to git. Force yourself to use the command line, this will help you understand the philosophy of version control in general, and git in particular.

Create a github account and start using it. Use it to showcase your improving maturity as a programmer and developer, and use it to showcase your projects. 

Pro Git, Chacon and Straub is a fantastic tutorial and reference, and is available online

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Learn how to use a good editor.

I’m not going to get into a religious war here, so will not make any recommendations. However, once you’re touch-typing, you should be making changes to your code in terms of your thoughts, not in terms of your editor’s commands. Choose an editor that makes sense, and choose one that is built for editing code. You will see your efficiency sky-rocket. 

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Touch Typing

The one, simple thing you can do to increase your productivity more than 10-fold is to learn how to touch type. 

This isn’t just about improving your performance at the keyboard. It has to do with removing distractions and obstacles when coding. It’s about becoming one with the machine, translating the thoughts in your head into code, without having to hunt around for the right key and pressing it one at a time. Your brain works much faster than you can express your thoughts, and anything you can do to bridge that gap improves your performance. 

And this has a multiplier effect as you learn how to use a good editor.


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The Developers Bookshelf

Algorithms & Data Structures

I’ve found multiple perspectives deepens my understanding of topics. The following books cover roughly the same ground, but have very different approaches, and I’ve gotten different insights from each of them

  • Introduction to Algorithms, Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest and Stein. The basics, written clearly and yet with rigor, this book should be the one to start with on most topics. Read it for self-study or as a reference.
  • Algorithm Design, Kleinberg and Tardos. A much more detailed look than CLRS, and the systematic exposition is a joy to read. There are a crazy number of exercises as well!
  • Algorithms, Dasgupta, Papadimitriou and Vazirani. Much less detailed than the first two, but a very different approach to many topics. 
  • Algorithms, 4th Ed., Sedgewick and Wayne. Many fewer topics covered, but in a lot more depth. Especially see how to analyze and test implementations. Great exercises and see the associated booksite as well.

And of course, no list of Algorithms books can be complete without

  • The Art of Computer Programming, vols. 1-n, Knuth. This is advanced, and not for the faint of heart. Also, the best categorization of sorting algorithms that I’ve seen. And demonstrates the limits of analysis (by which I mean it demonstrates how much analysis you can do!). 

Programming Praxis

More than syntax, programming is about the mindset. Here are a few books that help in this area:

  • Programming Pearls, Bentley. Yes, it’s old. Yes, it’s worth every bit.
  • Beautiful Code, Oram & Wilson. Bringing art into engineering
  • The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master, Hunt & Thomas


  • Hackers and Painters: Big Ideas from the Computer Age, Paul Graham
  • Turing’s Cathedral: The Origins of the Digital Universe, George Dyson. A bit of history. 
  • Anything and everything by Simon Singh
  • “Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman”, Richard Feynman

Language-Specific Books


  • The C++ Programming Language, Stroustrup
  • Accelerated C++, Koenig & Moo
  • Modern C++ Design, Alexandrescu


There are too many (very) good options, but I’m going to stick with just one:

  • Python Data Science Handbook, Jake VanderPlas


  •  Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Gamma, Helm, Johnson, Vlissides
  • Head First Design Patterns, Freeman & Robson


  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Douglas Adams. Everyone should know the answer to the ultimate question
  • The Discworld novels, Terry Pratchett
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Programming for the Programmer


Students aspiring to program come in all varieties. Some are good, some are not so good and this categorization is strictly within the same pool.

The frustrating part (for me) is that the good programmers have a long way to go to become competent developers. And the not-so-good programmers are not so good for no fault of their own. I find that the assignments that they do, either in college or elsewhere are unambitious and are too focused on specific concepts.

Many students seem to think sites such as leetcode are all that is required. I beg to differ – these are fine for preparing for interviews, but not for  becoming good developers.

Here’s a series of assignments that will take you beyond your current capabilities will teach you more about algorithms and data structures than you currently know, help you learn how to use the right tools, techniques, and skills, and get you started on building your portfolio of work.

The first group doesn’t even ask you to write any code:

The next group is focused on the basics:

  • Sort
  • Search
  • Fractals
  • Command line / options

And a few complicated ones:

  • Shell
  • Bellman-Ford
  • Matrix multiplication
  • Random walks

And the skills needed for tomorrow today:

  • Shared-memory multiprocessing
  • Distributed-memory multiprocessing
  • Map-reduce
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What you will learn:

  • Software: practice with loops and operations on arrays
  • Domain: approximations and error measurements, sampling

Input: Construct a (continuous) signal of your choice – say a simple sine
wave with a particular frequency and amplitude. Plot this. Note that since you
are representing the continous signal on a computer, so you are already
sampling it.

Discretization in space:

  • For the amplitude, choose a $n$ and divide the range into $2^n$ steps. For each index of your signal, (i) round up (ii) round down and (iii) round to the nearest step value.
  • Calculate the mean squared error due to this process.
  • Repeat for different values of $n$
  • Plot the error for different values of $n$. Does this match what you think it should look like?

Discretization in time:

  • What happens if you take fewer / more samples in time for representing your signal? How would you now determine the quality of your representation?
  • What is the lowest you can go? How does this relate to the frequency of the signal? (*cough* nyquist *cough*)

Discretization in both dimensions

  • Try it out!
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What you will learn

  • Software: relatively simple constructs, but a great exercise
    in constructing iterations. Visualization.
  • Domain: develop an intuition for how convolution works.
    And its time complexity

Input: construct the following signals of roughly the same height and width. Consider if each of these are odd or even signals.

  • Single rectangular pulse centered at zero
  • Single triangle centered at zero
  • One period of a square wave
  • Single sawtooth
  • Make your own!

Convolve each pair of inputs

  • Decide what the range of the summation should be
    ($-\infty$ to $\infty$?). i.e., how many steps do you need?
  • Start with a single step and plot the result. Repeat for each step. Try animating it!
  • How does the type of signal affect the output?
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What you will learn

  • Software: fairly simple constructs
  • Domain: Modulation, FSK, tradeoffs

Amplitude Modulation

  • Construct a carrier (high frequency) and a signal, represented as a list of values
  • Simply add the two
  • Visualize all the three signals
  • Take the modulated signal and subtract out the carrier to
    recover the original signal

Frequency Modulation – 1

  • Let’s start with a binary data signal.
  • Based on the frequency of your carrier, determine
    an appropriate $ \Delta_f $
  • Modify the carrier frequency for a range of cycles based on
    the input signal
  • Plot all three signals
  • Recover the input signal

Frequency Modulation – 2

  • Rather than a $f_c \pm \Delta_f$ for a $1$ and $0$, use a return-to-zero scheme. So the frequency changes only if there is a change
    from zero to one or vice-versa.
  • Plot all three signals
  • Recover the input signal

Frequency Modulation – 3

  • You could group your input data by two bits (so four levels) and use correspondingly more $\Delta_f$
  • Plot all three signals
  • Recover the input signal
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The Rich Man’s Square Wave Generator

What you will learn

  • Software: python, matplotlib
  • Domain: a different way of looking at Fourier series

Do this in python, mainly for the visualization capabilities

Rich man’s square wave generator

  • Create a sine wave of a given frequency and amplitude. Plot it for one period
  • Create a second sine wave of twice the frequency and half the amplitude as the first. Add the two cycles to the one from the previous step.
  • Continue with a third, fourth, … nth sine wave of successively higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes.
  • What waveform do we get as we add higher frequency components?


  • Plot the error between your square wave and a true square wave at each step. Can you bring this down to zero? what is the limit? Can you prove this limit?

Other combinations

  • Take odd multiples of frequency and divide the amplitudes by the multiple squared
  • Take odd multiples of frequency and divide the amplitudes by the multiple squared
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The Poor Man’s Square Wave Generator

What you will learn

  • Software: encapsulating functionality, parameterizing functions
  • Domain: frequency and period of a square wave

The poor man’s square wave generator

  • Decide a frequency and amplitude of your desired square wave
  • Create a list with low and high values (these correspond to the amplitude) and specific indices (these correspond to the frequency)
  • Plot this!
  • Create additional signals of multiples of this frequency, and different amplitudes
  • Repeat using numpy arrays. How might you efficiently create these signals, using features of the numpy library?
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Digital Logic Simulator

What you will learn

  • Software: Depending on how you architect this, fairly sophisticated! Work with graphs, and best done using OOD.
  • Domain: Digital logic circuits, and the sheer exponentiality of 2n2n

This is pretty advanced but will be pretty cool. We will build a digital circuit simulator in this exercise. We will also parallelize it using a pretty cool technique and will add timing analysis and fault simulation as well.

You could do this in python, but if you want to do the parallel simulator, you will need to use C or C++ (maybe Java?)

SimSim (Simple Simulator)

We will create a graph to represent the circuit in this part. To start with, we will create nodes and edges connecting nodes. The nodes will have a basic type (NOT, AND, OR, etc.). The nodes will be connected to each other to form a circuit; each node will have a specific number of inputs but can drive multiple other gates. We will have special nodes called Primary Inputs (PIs) and Primary Outputs (POs).

Each node ‘reads’ its inputs — the values on its input edges and determines its output value based on its type. It places this value on its output edge(s).

Create a circuit, apply patterns to the PIs and see if the POs match what you expect. You should be able to cycle through the truth table of your circuit to verify the output.

FaultSim (Fault Simulator)

A simple fault model is a ‘Stuck-at-‘ model. Tie an edge to a constant 00 or 11 and see if you can detect this at the POs.

Rather than simulating all possible input values, can you figure out a minimal set that can detect all possible faults?

TimeSim (Timing Simulator)

SimSim calculates the output values directly, it has no notion of gate and propagation delays.

Assign delays to each gate (and what the heck, to each connection as well). For example, an inverter can have a delay of  1 time units, a NAND gate of  2 and a NOR gate of 3 time units (hmm, why these three values?). Now, set up a global clock, and calculate the outputs at each time step. Compared to SimSim, the final value of POs will settle after a few time units.

And they may bounce around before settling! Can you set up a circuit so that you see glitches at the output?

ParSim (Parallel Simulator)

This is a unique form of parallelism!

In all of the above simulators, the values are 1 bit at each PI, gate output, and PO. The function evaluation at each gate is also a bitwise operation. However, we could instead treat each of these as a 32 (or longer!) bit int and do the same logical operations on the entire word! This will take exactly the same amount of time as before, but we’ll be running 32 tests in parallel. Do you see what I meant by calling it a unique form of parallelism?


  • Read in a circuit from a file
  • Read in inputs and outputs from a file
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RC Circuit Analysis

What you will learn

  • Software: relatively basic constructs. Iterative solver!
  • Domain: A better feel for a capacitor charging and discharging and the time constant.

RC Circuits

Take as input values of R (in Ohms), C (in Farads), and supply voltage (in Volts). Assume that the voltage is applied to a series RC circuits at time t=0t=0, and calculate the voltage across the capacitor at different times. Plot these!


  • Determine how much time it will take to charge the capacitor to a target voltage.
  • Vary R to see how the curve shifts. Determine the value of C so that the shift is exactly the same. Which has a larger effect?
  • Repeat for discharging the capacitor, rather than charging it


Apply a square wave as input and simulate for a few cycles. Vary the period and duty cycle and see if the behavior matches your intuition

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CMOS Characterization

What you will learn:

  • Software: relatively simple implementation, plus some visualization
  • Domain: improve your understanding of how a transistor works

CMOS Characterization – 1

A CMOS transistor operates in three different regions — cutoff, saturation, and linear. The equations for these are fairly straightforward. Implement these using hard-coded values for parameters that you may need to specify, such as doping concentrations, mobility, etc.

Given input voltages, determine the region of operation and use the appropriate equation to calculate $I_{DS}$ 

CMOS Characterization – 2

  • Calculate $I_{DS}$ for different values of $V_{GS}$ and $V_{DS}$ 
  • Plot $I_{DS}$ v. $V_{DS}$ for different values of  $V_{GS}$

CMOS Characterization – 3

  • Analyze the differences between N- and P-MOS transistors
  • What is the impact of transistor dimensions?
  • Read transistor parameters from a file and repeat for different technology nodes.
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Programming for the Electronics Engineering Student


I’ve had a few odd discussions with students from the Electronics branch related to software development. Broadly,

  • sniff I’m in electronics, don’t expect me to dabble in ugh software
  • We don’t get the subjects that CS students do, so aren’t as prepared for interviews as they are
  • eh, I’m just going to do it

There’s so much to unpack here…

Firstly, software (and data structures, and algorithms, and …) is not the domain of any one branch. It is a tool to be used just like any other and a very powerful tool at that. So if you’re being snobbish about not doing any software at the altar of “electronics,” you’re just shooting yourself in the foot. Most electronics is software, and the more comfortable you are with this tool, the better of an electronics engineer you will be. Plus, software can help you understand electronics much more than you otherwise would.

Second, there are a lot of opportunities to develop software skills. The courses that you don’t get to do aren’t all that important, you can learn the core concepts by yourself. There are a few (Databases!) that you won’t get exposure to, but you haven’t really missed much. Read on!

Finally, self-study is the best way to develop these skills. Here’s the big secret:

the only way to learn how to program …. is to program

The obvious question is: “what do I program?”

This is a series of posts that presents program suggestions, what to look for and what to focus on. If you go through these, you will be a better electronics engineer and a better software developer than 99% of your peers, irrespective of their major. I’ve gone through the typical subjects from the second year onwards, and defined assignments that (i) build on the theory that you learn (ii) expose you to different implementation concepts (iii) improve your understanding of data structures and algorithms

One last thing: the discipline of programming

  • All your implementation should have a reasonable testing strategy in place
  • All your code should be instrumented to measure the performance of key parts of the code
  • All C and C++ code should be compiled with -Wall
  • All code should be valgrind-certified error-free
  • All code should be in a version control system

I’ll talk about each of these points in a later post.

now let’s

Shut Up and Code!

Program ideas on:

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